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The coal reserves nearest to the coast could not be reached before deep-mine technologies were developed early in the 19th century.

Sunderland became a city in 1992, sixty years after the first attempt to gain city status.

Sunderland was certainly not short of public houses and beerhouses.

The earliest reference found to the Hylton Ferry (HER 446) was in 1322 when Baron Hylton granted to his chaplain "the passage of Bovisferry" (an ox