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Ropewalks were a striking feature in the 17th and 18th centuries, situated on the edge of town on both north and south sides of the river Wear, one

Well-preserved remains of limekilns on the north bank of the Wear, near the Stadium of Light.

The coal reserves nearest to the coast could not be reached before deep-mine technologies were developed early in the 19th century.

The coal trade was at the centre of Sunderland's economy throughout the 18th and 19th century.

Derek Rowell at work at Sunderland Maritime Heritage, Church Street East. For more about this extraordinary volunteer effort see here.

Sunderland cottages are a distinctive local feature.

From directories and other sources comes evidence of trades and occupations in the port and surrounding area before 1800.

The coastal area south of the port of Sunderland, Hendon and its coastline have been much altered over past centuries.

From 1500 until 1840, almost all the power to grind corn in the district was provided by wind.

Bishopwearmouth Panns was a tiny township of six acres, most of it reclaimed from the river before 1600.

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