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William Senior's plan of Hardwick, c.1609, showing the two mansions and the surrounding park shortly after Bess had died.

Tunstall, between Ryhope and Silksworth, remained an agricultural hamlet into the 19th century.

The fortuitous survival of two great surveys, Boldon Book, and Bishop Hatfield's survey, drawn up some two hundred years apart, has provided us wit

Some two hundred years after Boldon Book, the townships of Bishopwearmouth, Tunstall, Ryhope and Burdon, together with the borough of Sunderland, a