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Hardwick Timeline

Produced by University of London

Every ten years since 1801, except in 1941, there has been a general census of the population of England and Wales.

Surviving tax returns for Bristol identify resident alien (foreign) taxpayers for the 1520s, 1540s, and the period from 1571 to 1590.

The 1851 census can help us to identify parishes inhabited by first-generation immigrants.

Oral testimony is a means of identifying issues or events that might otherwise go undocumented.  Those who come to this country to seek a new life

Artwork in Cornish churches illustrates devotion to God in the medieval period, paticularly portraits of Jesus.

The 'Prayer-Book' or 'Western' rebellion, was one of the most important attempts in England to oppose the Protestant Reformation during the reign o

Aerial photography can reveal evidence of past landscapes, often very difficult to detect on the ground.

By 1700 Sunderland was 'noted for its sea coal trade', supplying a 'great quantity of coals' and employing 'great numbers of ships yearly in carryi

The analysis of medieval towns relies on the fact that the property boundaries which define urban house-plots (burgages) are very unlikely to chang

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