VCH Style Guidelines


See: money


In pre-decimalisation currency, 21s.

  • Abbreviate as gn. (singular), gns. (plural). Like s. and d. the abbreviated form should be italicised.
  • Do not attempt to convert the sums in modern equivilents or to £ s. d.

See: money


Express English money before 15 February 1971 with £ s. d. in roman for £, but in italics with full points after s. and d., which should be omitted where there are no pence or no shillings and pence: there is no need to write £5 0s. 0d., for example.

  • d.
  • 12s.
  • 13s. 4d.
  • £12
  • £12 15s.
  • £12 15s. 6d.
  • £12 0s. 6d. (not ‘£12 6d.’)

 Sums should be in figures, except when used adjectivally:

  • A bequest to the poor of 24 sixpenny loaves (not ‘24 6d. loaves’)

For the period after the introduction of decimal currency use the form:

  • 1p
  • 60p
  • £12
  • £12.75
  • £12.77½

Note that ‘p’ does not take a full point and is not used in expressions beginning with £. Avoid references to the obsolete new halfpenny.

Pre-1971 sums should not be converted into decimal currency, nor should a conversion figure be given in brackets, since subsequent inflation has rendered the comparison meaningless.

For a range of amounts use one of the following:

  • £50–£100
  • between 50p and £1
  • from £12 to £20

Note that the figures are separated by an en-rule, not a hyphen, and that ‘between’ and ‘from’ require ‘and’ and ‘to’ respectively. Do not use ‘from £1–£5’.

The form found in a source may often be used without translating it into modern terms. In particular, sums of 4 marks or over (certainly when they do not amount to an exact numbers of pounds) are best not converted into multiples of 13s. 4d., and those in guineas (abbreviation; gn., gns.) not converted into pounds and shillings.

A reference to a noble, however, should be given as 6s. 8d.

  • 5 marks a year (but 26s. 8d., rather than ‘2 marks’)
  • A fee of 30 gns. 25s. an acre

All sums of money take a singular verb, since the phrase ‘sum of’ is understood where not stated.

  • Over £500 was spent on repairs.
  • The remaining £2 10s. was left to charity.